Photography is one of the most popular hobby, and the right type of equipment can really make a huge difference. So, learning what is the best quality equipment that fits your budget can help you buy the best equipment with which you can enjoy photography for many years. There are two ways to learn photography, either you just take a camera and go on clicking. However, learning some basics and then clicking pictures will help you better. You can find many good photography tutorials online, they will also help you to make a equipment list for the kind of photography you are interested in it.
Equipment for Photography
Beginners: As a beginner one should always invest in a point and shoot camera. The best point and shoot cameras in my opinion are from Sony Cybershot. You can buy one which fits in your budget and one that has good reviews. Go though some reviews to figure out the model. In the camera box you will find a charging cable, if it is a rechargeable battery. Or you might need to buy batteries. In this case, buy the rechargeable batteries and its charger. Always keep an extra set of batteries with you. You will also need a decent sized memory card around 4 - 8 GB is good enough. Also, you will get a cable that helps to transfer pictures from the camera to a PC. Mostly, you will get a camera case free too, but if you don't, you will need to buy a good quality one.
Serious Hobbyist: If you have already used a point and shoot camera, then it is time for you to move to some higher camera that allows you to experiment more with manual settings. In such a case, investing in a DSLR camera is a good idea. Also, a tripod is important. You will get a case for both these equipment free and if you don't, you will need to buy special cases. Canon EOS 1000D is one such affordable DSLR.
Photography Studio: There is a huge range of professional equipment available, when it comes to studio photography. You will need 2 - 3 different types of cameras, and special portrait camera lenses. Also, lots of special lights and their stands will be needed. Certain equipment like reflectors you can make yourself, by wrapping a silver foil on cardboard. For studio photography, one will need various light kits which can be fluorescent, halogen or strobe lighting kits. You will also need photo umbrellas, and light stands to set up the equipment. A tripod is essential too. Keeping spare fluorescent lights is also advised.
Underwater Photography: For underwater photography, the first important equipment you need is a waterproof digital camera. If you are going for a vacation, then buy a decent quality disposable waterproof camera. You will also need a camera case, but if it is a disposable camera you can just keep the beach camera in your pocket or bag. However, for underwater photography, buy a rugged camera which has flash. Some good ones are Olympus Stylus Tough 8000 Black Digital Camera and Canon PowerShot D10 Blue Digital Camera.
Wedding Photography: This type of equipment is similar to studio photography. First of all you will need a good camera body, and a number of lenses. You will need wide angle zoom, wide to telephoto zoom, image stabilized telephoto zoom, and prime lenses. You will also need flashes and small accessories like a flash hand held meter, light umbrellas, and stands.
Equipment Storage: This might not seem very important piece of equipment, but trust me as you get serious about photography you will have more equipment, and having proper storage for your expensive cameras and lenses is important. Hence, always invest in quality camera case. Good waterproof camera bags or cases are the best. You get sling bags, or you even get small cases. But, if you like to travel, then buy a big backpack which has a section specially to keep your cameras and lenses.
If you are a serious hobbyist, then consider buying used equipment, take an experienced friend with you to help you select the used equipment. Also, if you have a big photography assignment, or a big event coming up you can get the equipment on rental too.