Different types of lenses are capable of reproducing different variations of the same image. So, you might want to select a type based on your needs and requirements. This makes it important for you to know about the various types of lenses and their mechanism.
The manner in which light rays reach the film, determines how an image gets imprinted on it. As light rays are emitted from an object in various directions, there has to be a way to control these rays, so as to get a proper image. Lenses are therefore created for the purpose of controlling the amount of light which will eventually reach the film.
As the name suggests, a standard lens records images in a standard or normal manner as visible to the human eye. There is no added distortion or a change in size of an object. For digital cameras, focal length of standard lenses is 35 mm, while for film cameras it increases to 50 mm. In medium format cameras, it is somewhere in the range of 75 to 105 mm.
This is considered to be the best for taking portrait pictures. It is similar to a standard lens as it does not distort images. It is also good for taking pictures from a short distance.
These are considered to be excellent when it comes to enlarging or magnifying distant objects, because of their longer focal lengths. You can click a picture of an object far away, but it will appear to be very close in the picture. These lenses are large and heavy.
A variation in long telephoto lens is the mirror lens. These lenses have a very long focal length, thanks mainly to the fact that they are made of mirrors and not glass. As light falls on these lenses, it radiates light in a 'folded' manner, thereby creating a longer focal length. Problems with these lenses can result in poor quality images.
A fish-eye camera lens has the unique ability to make the image appear like it is in a fish bowl. It does this by producing a highly wide-angled image and making it appear convex. It may be used to capture a close up picture along with surroundings, or for taking funny or unique pictures.
The best use of ultra/wide lenses comes while capturing a big scene. These lenses have the ability to enlarge depth in an image, thereby helping you to highlight the foreground while capturing the background. Image distortion is inversely proportional to the width of your frame. More the width, lesser the distortion.
You can capture great close-up pictures using a macro lens. Also, a macro lens will give you all the details while capturing a large picture. These lenses are not capable of giving pictures of great depth and it is therefore essential to set your focus on the most crucial part of the whole frame.
After reading about the various lenses, use this acquired knowledge while taking pictures the next time around. It will surely help enhance your picture quality.